MSG, or monosodium glutamate, is a flavor enhancer that has been a topic of intense debate for decades. Often associated with Chinese takeout and processed foods, MSG has gained a reputation as a potentially harmful ingredient. However, the truth about MSG’s effects on health is more nuanced than many people realize. Here is the science behind MSG and its impact on our well-being.

The Discovery

First, it’s essential to understand what MSG is. MSG is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, a naturally occurring amino acid found in many foods, including tomatoes, cheese, and mushrooms. It was first isolated and identified in 1908 by a Japanese chemist, Kikunae Ikeda, who discovered its ability to enhance umami, the savory taste found in foods like meat and cheese.

The Concerns

One of the primary concerns associated with MSG is the notion of “Chinese Restaurant Syndrome.” Some people claim to experience symptoms such as headaches, flushing, and sweating after consuming foods containing MSG. However, scientific research has failed to consistently support these claims. Multiple studies have found no direct link between MSG and the reported symptoms. In fact, a review of available scientific evidence published in the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology concluded that MSG consumed in typical dietary amounts is safe for the general population.

Recognized as Safe

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes MSG as safe when consumed within the recommended daily intake limits. They classify it as a food ingredient that is “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has also established an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for MSG and concluded that it does not pose a risk to human health.


However, it is worth noting that some individuals may be sensitive to MSG. A small percentage of people may experience a cluster of symptoms known as “MSG symptom complex” when they consume large amounts of MSG. These symptoms can include headache, flushing, sweating, chest pain, and numbness. The exact mechanisms behind this sensitivity are not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be related to individual differences in glutamate metabolism.


If you believe you are sensitive to MSG, it is recommended to reduce your intake or avoid foods containing MSG. However, it is important to remember that MSG occurs naturally in many foods, and eliminating it completely from your diet may be challenging.


It is crucial to differentiate between the effects of MSG and those of other food additives. Processed foods often contain other ingredients, such as high levels of sodium or unhealthy fats, which can contribute to adverse health effects. Blaming all these effects solely on MSG would be oversimplifying the issue. It is the overall quality and composition of the diet that significantly impacts health, not just one ingredient.

The advantages

On the flip side, MSG has its merits. As a flavor enhancer, it can help reduce the need for excessive salt or unhealthy ingredients in food preparation. By adding umami flavor to dishes, MSG can make them more satisfying and enjoyable without resorting to higher sodium levels or excessive fat content. This can be particularly beneficial for individuals looking to reduce their sodium intake or improve the taste of healthy but bland foods.


The debate surrounding MSG is a complex one. While some individuals may be sensitive to it and experience adverse effects, scientific evidence supports the safety of MSG for the general population when consumed within recommended amounts. Like many other food ingredients, moderation is key. As with any dietary concern, it is essential to focus on a well-balanced diet, rich in whole foods and limited in processed options. If you suspect sensitivity to MSG, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional.