The African Swine Fever (ASF) outbreak in the Philippines continues to be a cause for concern among farmers and the government alike. ASF is a highly contagious viral disease that affects domestic and wild pigs, causing fever, appetite loss, and sometimes death. The virus does not pose any threat to human health, but it can have devastating effects on the pig population and the economy.

The first case of ASF in the Philippines was reported in September 2019, and since then, the virus has spread to various regions of the country. As of August 2021, there have been over 1,800 confirmed cases of ASF in the Philippines, resulting in the culling of more than 400,000 pigs. The government has implemented measures to control the spread of the disease, including strict quarantine procedures, culling of infected animals, and intensified monitoring of pig farms.

In this article, we provide an overview of the current situation regarding ASF in the Philippines.

Origins of the ASF Virus

ASF is believed to have originated in Africa, where it is endemic in wild pig populations. The virus first emerged in Europe in the 1960s and spread to Asia in the 2000s. The virus is transmitted through direct contact between infected pigs, or contaminated objects such as clothing, vehicles, and equipment.

Economic Impact of ASF

The outbreak has had a significant economic impact on the Philippines, particularly on small-scale pig farmers who rely on pig production for their livelihood. According to the Department of Agriculture, the country’s swine industry has suffered losses of around PHP 99 billion (USD 2 billion) since the outbreak began.

Measures to Control ASF Spread

The Philippine government has implemented measures to control the spread of ASF, including the establishment of quarantine checkpoints, intensified surveillance of pig farms, and culling of infected animals. The authorities have also imposed a ban on the transport of live pigs and pork products in affected areas.

Challenges in Controlling ASF

Controlling the spread of ASF has proven to be challenging for the Philippine government due to the sheer size of the country’s pig industry and the difficulty of implementing biosecurity measures effectively. There are also concerns about the lack of compensation for farmers who have had to cull their pigs due to the outbreak.

International Support for ASF Control

What amazed us is that the Philippine government has received assistance from international organizations such as the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in controlling the ASF outbreak. The OIE has provided technical expertise and training to Philippine veterinarians, while the FAO has provided funding for ASF control measures.

Impact on Pork Prices

The ASF outbreak has also led to a surge in pork prices in the Philippines, as supply has been reduced due to the culling of infected pigs. This has led to concerns about inflation and food security, particularly for low-income families who rely on pork as a primary protein source.

Vaccine Development for ASF

There is currently no cure or vaccine for ASF, but efforts are underway to develop a vaccine against the virus. The Philippine government has allocated funds for research into developing a vaccine for ASF, to protect the country’s pig industry from future outbreaks.

Local Producers Switching to Other Livestock

Some local pig producers have shifted their focus to other livestock, such as chicken and fish, due to the high cost of maintaining biosecurity measures to prevent the spread of ASF. This has led to a decline in the country’s pig population and a shift in consumer preferences toward other protein sources.

ASF Outbreak Declining in Some Areas

While the ASF outbreak continues to be a concern in many parts of the Philippines, there are some areas where the virus appears to be declining. The authorities in these areas have lifted the ban on the transport of live pigs and pork products, indicating progress toward controlling the spread of the disease.

Importance of Biosecurity Measures

Biosecurity measures such as proper disinfection, quarantine procedures, and restricted access to farms are crucial in preventing the spread of ASF. Farmers and consumers alike must play their part in practicing good biosecurity measures to reduce the risk of future outbreaks.

Partnership with the Private Sector

With open arms, the Philippine government has partnered with the private sector to control the spread of ASF, with companies such as Jollibee Foods Corporation and San Miguel Corporation pledging support for ASF control measures. This partnership is crucial for providing resources and assistance to affected farmers and communities.

Need for Sustainable Pig Farming Practices

The ASF outbreak has highlighted the need for sustainable pig farming practices in the Philippines. This includes measures such as improved biosecurity practices, appropriate waste management, and better animal health management. By adopting sustainable practices, farmers can reduce their risk of disease outbreaks and improve the quality of their products.

Awareness Campaigns on ASF

To have full knowledge about the outbreak, our government has launched awareness campaigns on ASF to educate the public on the risks of the disease and the importance of biosecurity measures. These campaigns include radio and television advertisements, as well as community outreach programs to reach farmers and consumers in affected areas.

ASF and the Pork Industry

This unwanted outbreak has had a significant impact on the pork industry in the Philippines, with many small-scale producers forced to sell their pigs at a loss or cull them due to the impact of the disease. The outbreak has also led to a shift in consumer preferences towards other protein sources such as chicken and fish.

ASF and Food Security

The ASF outbreak has raised concerns about food security in the Philippines, particularly for low-income families who rely on pork as a primary protein source. The government has implemented measures to stabilize pork prices and increase the supply of alternative protein sources such as chicken and fish.

ASF and the Environment

The ASF outbreak also has environmental implications, particularly in terms of waste management. The culling of infected pigs can result in significant volumes of animal waste, which must be disposed of safely to prevent further spread of the virus.

International Trade Implications of ASF

The authorities are working to ensure that the outbreak does not affect the country’s status as a pork exporter, but there are concerns about the potential impact on the global pork industry.

Importance of Early Detection and Reporting

Early detection and reporting of ASF cases are crucial in preventing the spread of the disease. Farmers and veterinarians must be vigilant in reporting any suspected cases of ASF to the authorities to allow for prompt action and control measures.

ASF and Rural Livelihoods

The ASF outbreak has had a significant impact on rural livelihoods in the Philippines, particularly for small-scale pig farmers who rely on pig production for their income. The government has implemented measures to assist affected farmers, including financial support and training on biosecurity measures.

Need for Continued Surveillance and Monitoring

The Philippine government must continue to monitor the situation regarding ASF and implement appropriate measures to control the spread of the disease. This includes ongoing surveillance of pig farms and strict quarantine procedures to prevent the movement of infected animals.

ASF and One Health

ASF is an example of the complex interplay between animal health, human health, and the environment. The One Health approach emphasizes the importance of collaboration between different sectors to address health issues such as ASF holistically.


The Philippine pork industry faces significant challenges in the aftermath of the ASF outbreak. However, with the appropriate measures in place, including sustainable farming practices, increased biosecurity, and ongoing surveillance and monitoring, it is possible to rebuild the industry and ensure its continued growth and success.